Uyghur Tribe in China

 

Location

 

The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur , Uighur , Uigur ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. Today Uyghurs live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. There are also existing Uyghur communities in Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Germany, and Turkey and a smaller one in Taoyuan County of Hunan province in south-central China.
musical instruments

 

History

 

Historically the term Uyghur was applied to a group of Turkic-speaking tribes that lived in the Altay Mountains. Uyghur means unity or alliance. The origin of the ethnic group can be traced back to the Dingling nomads in northern and northwestern China and in areas south of Lake Baikal and between the Irtish River and Lake Balkhash in the third century B.C.

 

Livelihood

 

The Uyghur farm areas are around the Tarim Basin and the Gobi Desert. Wheat, maize and paddy rice are the region’s main grain crops, and cotton is a major cash crop. The Tianshan Mountains are rich in coal and iron, the Altay in gold, and the Kunlun in jade. The region also has big deposits of non-ferrous and rare metals and oil, and rich reserves of forests and land open to reclamation.

 

Costume

 

The cotton growing and cotton yarn spinning industry has a long history. People usually wear cotton cloth garments. The Uygur, old and young, men and women, like to wear a small cap with four pointed corners, embroidered with black and white or colored silk threads in traditional Uygur costumes. Girls in the past combed their hair into a dozen braids, and regarded long hair as part of female beauty. After marriage, they usually wear two braids with loose ends, decorated on the head with a crescent-shaped comb. Some tuck up their braids into a bun.
musical instruments

 

Religion

 

The Uyghur believe in Islamism. Over the centuries, many mosques, mazas (Uygur complexes, nobles’ tombs), theological seminaries and religious courts were set up in Uygur areas. Over the past few hundred years, religion has greatly influenced economic, judicial and educational affairs and the Uygur family and matrimonial system.
musical instruments

 

Literature

 

The Uyghur language and script contributed to the enrichment of civilizations of the other peoples in Central Asia. Compared to the Europeans of that time, the Uyghur were far more advanced. Most of the early Uyghur literary works were translations of Buddhist and Manichean religious texts, but there were also narrative, poetic, and epic works. Some of these have been translated into German, English, Russian, and Turkish. After the general population’s conversion to Islam, world-renowned Uyghur scholars emerged and Uyghur literature flourished.

 

Music

 

The Uygur are excellent at singing and dancing. The Twelve Mukams is an opera epic comprising more than 340 classic songs and folk dances. This musical treasure, which was on the verge of being lost, was collected, studied and recorded.
musical instruments
There is a wide variety of plucked, wind and percussion Uygur musical instruments, including the Dutar , strummed Rawap and Dap . The first two are instruments with a clear and crisp tone for solo and orchestral performances. Dap is a sheepskin tambourine with many small iron rings attached to the rim. It is used to accompany dancing.
musical instruments

by Xiao Xiao @ InteractChina.com

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White Bai Ethnic Tribe

The Bai is one of the 56 ethnic tirbes of China. Bai People regards white color with high esteem and they call themselves Baizi, Baini or Baihuo, meaning white people. In 1956, they were named the Bai Nationality by Chinese Authorities.

 

Location

 

Bai Ethnic
The Bai ethnic group has a population of around 2 million, 80 percent of which live in the Bai Autonomous County west of Yunnan Province. Only a small part of their community are scattered in Sichuan, Guizhou, and Hunan Provinces.

 

Language

 

The Bai speak a language related to the Yi branch of the Tibetan-Myanmese group of the Chinese-Tibetan language family. The language contains a large number of Chinese words due to the long contact with the majority Chinese ethnic group, Han Chinese.

 

Livelihood

 

Bai Ethnic
The area round Lake Erhai in the autonomous prefecture is blessed with a mild climate and fertile land yielding two crops a year. Here, the main crops are rice, winter wheat, beans, millet, cotton, rape, sugar-cane and tobacco. The forests have valuable stocks of timber, herbs of medicinal value and rare animals. Mt. Diancang by Lake Erhai contains a rich deposit of the famous Yunnan marble, which is basically pure white with veins of red, light blue, green and milky yellow. It is treasured as building material as well as for carving.

 

Costume

 

Bai Ethnic
The color white is favored by both men and women of the Bai ethnic group when it comes to clothing. The Bai ethnic dresses are mostly light in color, forming stark contrast with dark colors that are used as a complement. The dresses, with strongly contrasted yet perfectly matched colors, are adorned with elaborate cross-stitch embroidery. Most dresses are edged with lace. They may be intricately decorated, yet looking quite orderly.

 

Local Houses

 

Bai Ethnic The houses of the Bai people fall into three categories, according to the material, decorations, and furnishings. The three categories are: bamboo sawali house and thatched cottage, wooden house, and house with tiled roof. This division reflects the different economic levels and the different geographical environments.

 

Arts and Crafts

 

Bai Ethnic Bai Ethnic
The Bai people are masters of artistic creativity including architecture, sculpture, painting, music, and other craft techniques such as lacquer work. Contemporarily, their dance and music spread among the Han people after becoming accepted as part of the court entertainment.

 

Religion

 

Bai Ethnic
Although the Bai people believe in Buddhism, they also worship their village god, Benzhu, Nature of God, the Prince of the Nanzhao regime, or even a hero of folklore.

 

Festivals

 

Bai Ethnic Bai Ethnic
The main festivals of the Bai include the March Fair, worship gathering in three temples, the Torch Festival, the Folk Song Singing Festival at Shibaoshan Mountain, and Protecting Immortal’s Day. Among them the two most important festivals are March Fair and Torch Festival.

by Xiao Xiao @ InteractChina.com

P.S. We need people with similar passion to join or partner with us in promoting ethnic handicrafts! Please contact us at interact@interactchina.com to make any suggestions that you may have in co-operating with us, or join as Affiliate.