How to Play Hulusi

Hulusi is played vertically and has three pipes which connect with the gourd wind chest. It has a very pure, clarinet-like sound.




The traditional materials for making Hulusi are bamboo and gourd. Bamboo is used for the pipes and gourd is used for the wind chest. Nowadays many new materials are used to replace bamboo and gourd. The new materials often used are sandalwood, ebony and cloisonné to make Hulusi look prettier, more luxurious and more professional look. The reeds are made of brass. A plastic sheath is inserted in which protects the two pipes and keeps them sturdy.


Main Pipe


Single pipe Hulusi are rare. Two or three pipes are the most common. Most Hulusi have a main pipe, which has seven holes, 6 in the front and 1 thumbhole in the back. In 1958, a fourteen-note version was invented, and in the 1970’s a version with two melody pipes, tuned a fourth apart, was invented. Take the following Hulusi for example, the player can either play the key of G or D, depending on which mouthpiece and main pipe is controlling. Musical Instruments


Drone Pipes


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Hulusi has a main pipe and two drone pipes, which can play chord. One drone pipe produces high pitch and once produces low pitch. But it is not uncommon for a Hulusi to have only one drone pipe sound while the other drone pipe is merely ornamental and has no sound.

For the above Hulusi , the one on the left have two pipes both playing chord while the one on the right only has one drone pipe sound.


How the drone pipes play chords?


Traditionally, there are two foam lids at the end of drone pipes, which can be plugged or unplugged to open or close the drones when playing. When the lids are open, the high pitch drone produces a “mi” tone along with the “so” tone of the main pipe when having all finger holes closed, and the low pitch drone produces a “la” tone as resonance. However, the foam lids are not convenient to control as you need to move your hand away from the main pipe when playing, which might disturb the playing.

Drone pipes with foam lids
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In recent years, there is new technique to replace the foam lids on the drones as to make the drones easy and convenient to control when playing. The drone switches are for great delivery of sound and are quick on and off.

drone pipes with switches
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The new technique allows you to switch on and off the drones easily at any time without affecting the playing.

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Music of the Uyghur

The Uyghur are a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia. Today Uyghurs live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. An estimated 80 % of Xinjiang’s Uyghurs live in the southwestern portion of the region, the Tarim Basin. Uyghur Musical Instruments The Uyghur have a great love of singing and dancing. They have been known for their vibrant music and ethnic dances since very ancient times. Music and dance occupy a significant place in life of the Uyghur. There are no holidays, parties and wedding festivities without music and dances. Uighur traditional songs are remarkable for their melodious originality.


Distinctive Uyghur Music


Uyghur Musical Instruments

Uyghur music embraces several distinct regional styles, product of the geography and complex history of the region, whose oasis kingdoms, separated by mountains and deserts, have been subject through the course of history to rule by many different outside forces.


The History of Uyghur Music


Uyghur Musical Instruments

Uyghur scholars trace the roots of their music back to the 11th century BC to the Di people who are referred to in the earliest of the Chinese dynastic annals, living to the north of China. And generally speaking, the historical flow of music has largely moved from west to east in the following centuries. While Chinese histories record the influence of the Western Region on central China, Uyghur music has historically absorbed much influence from the regions of Central Asia to the west, arriving along the famed Silk Road.


Distinct Regional Styles


Due to the particular geography of Xinjiang and the constant influence of one culture on another, musical styles have developed along different paths over the years, and each tradition is typical of its locality.

The musical traditions of the southern oasis towns of Khotan and Kashgar are more closely allied to the classical Central Asian traditions of Bukhara and Samarkand, while the music of the easternmost oasis town of Qumul has closer links to the music of Northwest China. Each of the region’s oasis towns have to this day maintained their own distinctive sound and repertoire, but they are linked by a common language and overarching culture, maintained by constant communication through trade and movement of peoples. Musically there is much to link these local traditions, in terms of instruments, genres, styles and contexts.


Traditional Uyghur Music


There are several kinds of traditional Uygur music, the most famous of which is the classic Uygur musical composition the “Twelve Muqam”, a major force in the development of Uygur folk music. Uyghur Musical Instruments

Another kind of Uygur music is called “Sanam,” or “beauty,” which involves singing and dancing to a group consisting of between seven to a dozen pieces of song-and-dance music. The music begins slowly and steadily, then picks up speed, and finally culminates in a climax of merry music and exuberant dances.

“Kuxak,” “Eytixish,” and “Maida” are spoken songs, which are common among the Uygur people. Accompanied by simple tunes, the speaker will talk his way through a song, usually about the love between a man and a woman. These songs can also be performed by two people.

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Hulusi, Oriental Saxophone

If you like playing and collecting Chinese musical instruments, Hulusi will not disappoint you.





natural gourd and bamboo pipe Hulusi
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natural gourd and sandalwood pipe Hulusi
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Hulusi is the free wind instrument of Chinese folk music. It is originated from ethnic Dai tribe in Yunnan in the Southwest China, which can be traced back to Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC to 220 AD). It is also popular among other ethnic groups like De’ang, Hani and Yi in the nearby regions. Dai people call it “Bi Lang Dao”. “Bi” means wind instrument, “Lang” means vertically held, and “Dao” means gourd. Whereas, in Chinese Mandarin the instrument is called Hulusi , named after its shape and sound. “Hulu” means gourd, and “si” means silk, implying the sound is as soft as silk. For its soft and harmonious sound, it is described as Oriental Saxophone.


Construction and Various Types


Hulusi or Gourd Flute is made of a gourd with bamboo pipes fixed at the bottom. The gourd is the wind chest. The middle pipe is the main pipe with 7 finger holes, 6 on the front and 1 on the back. The pipes next to the main pipe on both sides are drone pipes or harmonic pipes. The reeds are at the top end of the pipes. Most of reeds are made of brass, and could be in triangle or rectangle shape. Hulusi is a solo instrument and rarely played in ensembles. It was predominantly played by the Dai and other non-Han ethnic groups in Yunnan province but now can be seen everywhere in China.

cloisonne gourd and ebony pipe Hulusi
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sandalwood gourd and sandalwood pipe Hulusi
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There are various types of gourd planted all over China, while those planted in Yunnan, with its slim shape, thick texture and solid structure is considered the most ideal for making Hulusi . In addition to natural gourd, quality timber such as ebony and sandalwood are popular choice for more professional players.


Legend about Hulusi


The sound of Hulusi is hauntingly beautiful, mellow and tender, and has a very pure, clarinet-like sound. It is ideal for expressing soft and tender feelings. Traditionally, Dai men play Hulusi to express their love to women and they also play Hulusi in the fields when taking a break from planting or harvesting. Musical Instruments Musical Instruments

There is a legend about Hulusi among Dai people. In the remote past, a Dai young man saved his girl friend from a flood by holding a big gourd and rushing through the turbulent waves. His loyalty to love touched Buddha, who inserted bamboo pipes into a gold gourd and gave it to the brave man. Holding up the gold gourd, the man played beautiful music. All of a sudden, the torrential flood retreated, flowers blossomed and peacocks opened their tails. All things on earth seemed to be sending their good wishes to the lovers. Ever since then, Hulusi has been passed down from generation to generation among Dai people. Musical Instruments

Hulusi is widely appreciated for its beautiful and soft sound. Although it is still predominantly performed in China, Hulusi has been popular in other countries. It has in recent years been adopted by European composers and performers. Rohan Leach from England, Rapheal De Cock from Belgium and Herman Witkam from the Netherlands have all taken the instrument in new directions.

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