Colorful People, Colorful Culture

 

Location

 

The Miao Hmong ethnic minority has a population of over 8 million, larger than most minority groups in China. They are widely scattered and normally living in clustered groups of small villages.

Miao People 8

 

Language

 

Linguistically the Miao belong to the Miao-Yao branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The Miao have their own languages consisting of 30-40 dialects, which make it hard for them to understand those of other tribes. But nowadays most Miao young can speak Mandarin Chinese. They had no written scripts until year 1957, when a Romanization system was created. Because of the lack of written language, history and tradition was passed down in the form of songs, dances and clothing.

 

Farming

 

The Miao are engaged in agriculture, with hunting as supplement. Major crops include paddy rice, maize, rape, ramie, oil-tea camellia and tung tree. The weather is mild with generous rainfall and the land is rich in medical herbs such as Panax notoginseng and Gastrodia elata.

 

Living Condition

 

As an old Miao saying says: “Birds nest in trees, fish swim in rivers, Miao live in mountains.” Miao live in mountainous areas. A typical Miao village contains 100 to 200 households, with smaller village of 10 and big village of over 1000 households.

Miao People 9 Miao People 10

Miao build their house on deep mountain slopes at the foot hill and next to rivers. It has three storeys. The first storey is for raising domestic animals and fowls and storing firewood and farm tools. The second storey is living room, outside of which is a balcony. The third storey is bed room.

Miao People 11 Miao People 12

 

Family

 

Miao People 13 Miao family is monogamous. Aged parents are supported by their youngest son. Property is passed down to men, but women have the most power in the family. Marriages are usually arranged by parents, but unmarried young men and women have the freedom to court. If a couple is attracted to each other, they exchange love tokens but they must still need parents’ approval before marry. For the first three years of marriage, the bride lives with her own family. She lives with her husband only during holidays and at certain other times. If she gets pregnant, she moves to her husband’s house. Like other ethnic groups, Miao are not under China’s one child policy.

 

Education

 

By Chinese government, children have nine year compulsory education. However, some parents do not believe in educating girls. Many girls drop out of schools when they are teenagers. As many as 95 percent of Miao women cannot read or write.

 

Cultural Heritage

 

Miao People 14 The friendly Miao are well known for their hospitality. They always keep their house open for guests and greet them with wine and songs. Guests are greeted outdoors and they are invited to drink, eat, and sing.

Miao love singing and dancing and are famous for love songs and wine toasting songs. Lusheng is their favorite musical instrument. Other instruments like copper drum and Suona are also very popular.

 

Crafts

 

Miao people are skilled at handicrafts such as embroidery, weaving, paper-cutting, batik, and jewelry casting. Miao embroidery and silver jewelry are delicate and beautiful. The patterns on their clothes are extremely colorful and with great details.

 

Religion and Festival

 

Miao believe in animals and worship nature and ancestors. They hold that everything has its own spirit, including sun, moon, cave, bridge, plants and even huge stones. So they host many ritual activities to express their reverence and respect to nature and their ancestors. Many of them are passed down and become the festivals today.

There are many festivals like Miao New Year, Harvest Tasting, sister festival, Lusheng Festival and Dragon Boat Festival. There’re lots of activities on these festivals, singing, dancing, horse racing, bullfight, rooster fight, knife-pole climbing and swinging.

 

Social Problems

 

Since Miao are isolated from modern world and living in remote mountainous villages, they face many problems of poverty. With the increasing number of young generation migrating to big cities, the lack of labor and preservation of their own culture is facing great challenge.

by Xiao Xiao @ InteractChina.com

P.S. We need people with similar passion to join or partner with us in promoting ethnic handicrafts! Please contact us at interact@interactchina.com to make any suggestions that you may have in co-operating with us, or join as Affiliate.

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A Nation Suffered Far Too Long

The Miao are people of one of China’s 55 ethnic tribes, whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China mainly provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hunan, Hubei and Guangxi. The group is believed to have a history of more than 5000 years, longer than that of Han Chinese the largest ethnic people of China.

 

Terms — Miao and Hmong

 

Miao also called as Hmong and two terms are both used to refer to this aboriginal people of China. Outside China they live in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma, due to migrations starting in the 18th century, and also in the United States, French Guyana and Australia, as a result of recent migrations in the aftermath of the Indochinese wars.

Some people think “Miao” is a term for “barbarians”, while “Hmong” means “free men.” In fact, “Miao” in Chinese doesn’t mean “barbarians”. This is a common misunderstanding that many Hmong-Americans have. “Miao” in Chinese literally means “sprout”, “young plant” or “sprouting seed”. In fact, the term implies Miao as a nation grow as strong as plants and sprouting seeds. It is a very honorable name and refers to people of the earliest civilization while other tribes were still unknown in China.

 

Legend about the origin of Miao

 

By history, Chiyou is Miao’s ancestor, leader of the Jiuli Tribe. He fought with the Huaxia Tribe led by Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and Yandi (Yan Emperor), ancestors of Han Chinese. The battle was said to take place in 26th century BC in Zhuolu (border between present Hebei and Liaoning provinces) and was to fight for the control over Yellow River valley. Chiyou was defeated and with the further attack of Huaxia Tribe, he led the Jiuli Tribe to move down to south China, which started Miao’s history of immigrating.

 

Long-Time Migration

 

Miao 1 Miao ancestors began to settle down in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the Shang and Zhou dynasty (7th century BC to 256 BC). As early as the Qin and Han dynasty (221 BC to 220 AD), Miao lived in the western part of present day Hunan and the eastern part of present day Guizhou provinces. The term Miao was began to use in Tang and Song period (AD. 618-1279).

In the 3rd century AD, Miao went west to present day northwest Guizhou and south Sichuan along the Wujiang River. In the 5th century, some Miao groups moved to east Sichuan and west Guizhou. In the 9th century, some went to Yunnan. In the 16th century, some settled in Hainan province, the most southern part of China.

Military attacks in the 18th and 19th century, some even migrated across China border into Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, Thailand, Burma and western countries.

As a result of these large-scale migrations over centuries Miao Hmong are widely located. Altogether there are approximately 8 million Miao Hmong people. They speak 30-40 mutually unintelligible dialects and they have wide differences in customs and clothes.

by Xiao Xiao @ InteractChina.com

P.S. We need people with similar passion to join or partner with us in promoting ethnic handicrafts! Please contact us at interact@interactchina.com to make any suggestions that you may have in co-operating with us, or join as Affiliate.