Traditional Chinese Painting Techniques

According to painting skills, traditional Chinese painting (Guohua) can be divided into three main styles: gongbi style, xieyi style and combination of these two styles.

gongbi painting
 Chinese Painting

Gongbi,meticulous, usually referred to as “court-style” painting. It features on meticulous drawing and emphasizes the beauty of lines. It needs close attention to detail and fine brushwork.

xieyi painting
 Chinese Painting

Xieyi, freehand, loosely termed watercolour or brushwork. So Chinese people also use Chinese character “water ” and ” ink ” together to name this painting skill as the core of Xieyi. When a painter use xieyi technique, he always try to describe exaggerated forms to express his feelings. Different from gongbi, xieyi generalizes shapes and displays rich brushwork and ink techniques.

combination of gongbi and xieyi
 Chinese Painting

Combination of gongbi and xieyi, literally, both of two main techniques gongbi and xieyi are used in one painting. This kind of painting skill is used very often in flower-bird paintings and figure paintings.

by Xiao Xiao xiaoxiao@interactchina.com

About Interact China

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“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide”

We co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 10 years solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we position well to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and bring you direct finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

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Birds in four seasons – The collection of Chinese flower-and-bird paintings

Flowers and birds were favorite subjects of paintings in ancient China, offering a kind of special aesthetic interest. Flower-and-bird painting originated from the Tang Dynasty (618-907). This art form slowly advanced from initially serving as an ornamental pattern for daily utensils, then later serving as symbolic, metaphoric and allegorical elements in the background of figure painting. Finally, flowers and birds are seen in independent themes.

Birds and Plum artist: Pu Zuo (1918-2001)
 Chinese Painting

Flower-and-bird painting further developed during the Five Dynasties period (907-960), and reached maturity during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). The Five Dynasty Period was a crucial era of shaping this style as one of the three major trends in Chinese traditional painting, together with Landscape Painting and Figure Painting.

Birds and Camellia artist: Lu Yifei (1908-1997)
 Chinese Painting

Flower-and-bird painting is peculiar to China. Flowers and birds can be associated with almost all thoughts and feelings of a human being. They can symbolize feminine beauty, virtue, political authority, omens, and lucky niceness. Once established, this tradition became popular in every dynasty. Therefore, their symbolic meaning grew increasingly rich and specific.

Four Gentlemen and Three Friends of Winter are the representatives of flower-and-bird painting. Plum blossom, orchid, bamboo, and chrysanthemum were known as the Four Gentlemen. Their common features are nobleness, modesty, and integrity. And as the Three Friends of Winter, pine, bamboo, and plum blossom are often associated with a man of great virtue. For their own natural qualities, these five plants are given the corresponding symbolic meanings and appear in flower-and-bird paintings frequently.

Bird and Camellia artist: Sun Yunsheng (1918-2000)
 Chinese Painting
Bird and Magnolia Flower artist: Qi Baishi (1864-1957)
 Chinese Painting

The tradition of flower-and-bird painting evolved into two main trends, namely the Gong Bi tradition where artists focused on small details, careful application of color and meticulous technique, giving their art a realistic and ornamental feeling, while the other trend of Xie Yi is more expressionistic and impulsive.

by Xiao Xiao xiaoxiao@interactchina.com

About Interact China

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“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide”

We co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 10 years solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we position well to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and bring you direct finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 2000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion, Tailor Shop, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.
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Early bloomers in Chinese paintings

Chinese painters love nothing more than spring flowers when they depict spring scenes. Those early bloomers bring the first burst of color onto the drawing boards of a new year. Here is a list of spring flowers in Chinese paintings. You may find some fabulous scenes of spring, and you can just enjoy the pleasant season without going outdoors.

Canola plants

A painting of canola flowers by Shen Xinggong.
 Chinese Painting

Canola plants not only provide us with the world’s major source of vegetable oil, but also stunning spring scenes, when fields of canola flowers transfer the landscape into a huge golden blanket.

Peach blossoms

A painting of peach blossoms by Zhou Chunya.
 Chinese Painting

Peach blossoms are highly appreciated in Chinese culture. It is believed that the peach possesses more vitality than any other tree because its blossoms appear before leaves sprout.

Pear blossoms

A painting of pear blossoms by Yu Jigao.
 Chinese Painting

Beautiful things are often fleeting. Pear blossoms always seem to bloom in profusion overnight and are soon washed away by the rain before people realize they are there.

Cherry blossoms

A painting of cherry blossoms by Fang Chuxiong.
 Chinese Painting

Although the cherry blossom is part of the Japanese culture, the delicate pink flowers are enjoyed in most cities around the world.

Peony

A painting of peony by Yu Feian.
 Chinese Painting

Peony is the traditional flower symbol of China, and was formerly grown only for the Chinese emperor. The massive blooms are often associated with fortune, prosperity, and nobility.

Crabapple blossoms

A painting of crabapple blossoms by Zhang Shizeng.
 Chinese Painting

The famous traditional Chinese medicine doctor of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), Sun Simiao, considered the blossom as an herbal medicine to resist some heart diseases.

Magnolias

A painting of magnolias by Huang Yongyu.
 Chinese Painting

Long-lived magnolia trees were loved by ancient Chinese royal families, and often planted in the temple.

by Xiao Xiao xiaoxiao@interactchina.com

About Interact China

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We co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 10 years solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we position well to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and bring you direct finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 2000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion, Tailor Shop, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.
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Twelve Beauties (2)

A Beauty at Leisure: Distant Thoughts among Antiquities
 Chinese Painting

Sitting on the mottled bamboo chair, this lady glances down, absorbed by her private thoughts. She is surrounded by an array of treasures displayed on shelves including fine ceramics. For example, behind her is a Ru ware style brush washer, and a jade table screen; to her left (our right) is a red-glazed monks-cap ewer, and a bronze zun wine beaker. All identifiable as objects from the Kangxi and Yongzheng periods, these objects present the quintessential opulent style of the imperial household. These treasures not only add credibility to the authenticity of the scene, they also are used to convey the woman’s interest in antiquities.

A Beauty at Leisure: Watching Magpies from a Couch
 Chinese Painting

Seated indoors on a couch and playing with a jade interlink, this lady is lost in thought while watching the pair of magpies that are calling outside. The artist means to show the woman’s happiness at the end of winter and the beginning of spring, but he also, perhaps inadvertently, conveys a sense of stifling solitude and utter loneliness that was the lot of many women in the palace. The screen behind her is inscribed with hundreds of different forms of the character for longevity. Although the message is to extend life hundreds of years, one feels she would willing trade the life of an immortal for the devoted pairing of Mandarin ducks.

A Beauty at Leisure: Sitting Beside a Chrysanthemum
 Chinese Painting

Sitting next to a table in a study, this woman holds a fine enamel watch. On the table stands a vase with chrysanthemums, which indicates that the time is the eighth lunar month (early autumn). Elegant and lofty, the chrysanthemum is much appreciated in the autumn for its ability to resist the cold. Endowed with a hearty nature, it was associated with firm resolution and longevity, and was also appreciated for its simple beauty and refinement. It became the favored ornament to adorn both hair and rooms in the house. Behind her is hanging a scroll with a poem by the great Ming dynasty calligrapher Dong Qichang (1555-1636). The European astrolabe on the small table in the next room and the enamel watch that the woman holds in her hand are indications that Western objects were already becoming fashionable in the palace.

A Beauty at Leisure: Watching Cats while Handling Beads
 Chinese Painting

Sitting upright, slightly leaning on the table, and leisurely handling the prayer beads, this lady is watching two cats play on a windowsill. The painter has us view the interior of the room from outside the round window, so the focal interest in this painting is relatively small, but because the painter used western one-point perspective, the foreground, middle ground, and background are laid out systematically, which has the result of significantly expanding the sense of space and also extending the charm of the scene. The chime clock next to the lattice window is marking the passage of time as the cats play on the threshold of inner and outer space. In an ambiance of suspended activity, the days thus pass quietly.

A Beauty at Leisure: Wearing a fur-lined coat, Looking in a Mirror
 Chinese Painting

Wearing a fur-lined surcoat, and with jade adorning her wrist, the lady in this painting holds a bronze mirror in one hand, while warming the other by gently resting it on a brazier. In the background, there is a hanging scroll inscribed by Hermit Pochen. Pochen (literally “defeating the dust of the world”) was the sobriquet that the Yongzheng emperor had adopted when he was still a prince. It implies that he aimed to be pure of heart and had few desires.

A Beauty at Leisure: Watching Snow Beside a Brazier
 Chinese Painting

Gently holding back a curtain, a lady sits on a bed beside the window and admires the snowy scene and blossoming plum tree. Covered with frost and snow, the jade-green bamboo looks strong and fresh despite the cold. Celebrated in poetry for its life force (it blossoms in late winter before the snow has melted), the white winter sweet is favored not only for its beauty but also because the five petals of its blossom are associated with five blessings including happiness, good fortune, health, auspiciousness, and longevity.

by Xiao Xiao xiaoxiao@interactchina.com

About Interact China

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“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide”

We co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 10 years solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we position well to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and bring you direct finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 2000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion, Tailor Shop, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.
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Twelve Beauties(1)

When Yongzheng was still a prince, he commissioned this beautiful set of paintings for the purpose of decorating a screen in the Deep Willows Reading Hall, a study within his private quarters at the Summer Palace. An imperial garden to the northwest of Beijing, the Summer Palace was presented to the young prince in 1709 by his father the Kangxi emperor (r. 1662-1722).

Painted in realistic style with neat outlines and generous color, the set follows the custom of depicting ladies of the court as women of elegance and natural grace. The artist portrayed these imagined beauties at leisure activities such as sampling tea, watching butterflies, and reading, as well as showing them in quiet reflection. He also showcased the most popular costumes and hairstyles of the Qing court women. For research on costume and accessories of Qing dynasty court women, these paintings are visual and historical documents of unparalleled authenticity. They reveal perceptions about the women of the court during the reigns of Kangxi and Yongzheng, whilst also documenting their refined demeanor and fine costumes.

A Beauty at Leisure: Lady Standing and Holding a Ruyi Scepter
 Chinese Painting

The lady in this picture is depicted admiring the flowers in the courtyard while holding a Ruyi scepter. The auspicious Ruyi (“as you wish”) scepter was a popular gift in the Qing dynasty. In the garden, the purple, pink, white, and red peonies are most prominent. For its opulence, grace, and fragrance, the peony is called the Prince of Flowers and is a symbol of an auspicious, thriving and prosperous future, while the Ruyi scepter carved from bamboo in the form of Lingzhi mushroom signifies wish fulfillment. Together they combine to express “Wished for Prosperity and Position.”

A Beauty at Leisure: Murmuring to herself while reading
 Chinese Painting

Holding a book with a page half revealed, the woman in this painting seems to be reciting to herself. On the wall behind her is a small colored landscape painting. The decorative leaf below the painting is inscribed in cursive script with a poem by the distinguished Northern Song calligrapher, poet, and connoisseur Mi Fu (1051-1107).

A Beauty at Leisure: Leaning on a Gate Gazing at Bamboo
 Chinese Painting

This courtyard is full of flowers, grasses, bamboo, decorative rocks, and an array of miniature landscapes in containers (pen jing) that include orchids and Chinese rose. The lady leaning on the gate wistfully gazes, perhaps with romantic yearnings, at the spring colors filling the garden.

A Beauty at Leisure: Watching Butterflies in Summer
 Chinese Painting

The lady stands leaning on a table. Beyond the railing, bright butterflies hover by decorative garden rocks and day lilies. Although the painting describes a woman doing little more than indulging in summer leisure, because of the allegorical nature of the day lily and its implication of giving birth to a son, this scene can be understood as having the auspicious message that the woman depicted is pregnant with a boy. She holds a small calabash. Since the calabash gourd belongs to a group of plants that communicates flourishing growth, it is often used to suggest the idea of many sons. With the day lilies in bloom beside the railing and the calabash in her hand, the painting is not only visually attractive, but also manages to have deeper meanings.

A Beauty at Leisure: Doing Needlework by Candlelight
 Chinese Painting

By candlelight, this lady is occupied with her needlework. Typically needlework encompassed weaving, embroidering, and sewing. In the past, needlework was one of the most important standards to judge the character of a woman. Any woman who was good at needlework would be highly regarded. The lady in this picture picks the needle elegantly and seems lost in thought as she works. The red bat flying through the bamboo in the background is a symbol of good luck.

A Beauty at Leisure: Drinking Tea Under a Parasol Tree
 Chinese Painting

With a large gauze fan in her hand, this lady is sampling tea beneath the branches of a parasol tree (wu tong shu). Originally drinking tea was a simple daily ritual. It became associated with the intellectual world when gentlemen combined sipping tea with the discussion of world affairs and ideas, thereby elevating its status. Inside the moon gate, the black-lacquer bookshelf with gold décor is filled with books. The fascicles not only add an atmosphere of Confucian learning, they also combine with the elegant porcelain cup in the woman’s hand to indicate that she is culturally accomplished.

by Xiao Xiao xiaoxiao@interactchina.com

About Interact China

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“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide”

We co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 10 years solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we position well to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and bring you direct finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 2000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion, Tailor Shop, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.
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Artist fuses ink of China and oil of the West

For over a millennium, Chinese artists have been using ink to express the beauty of flowers and birds. Artist Huang Yue has carried that tradition on, but uses a different medium – oil.

A painting by Chinese oil painting artist Huang Yue.
 painting

Flower and bird ink painting, a traditional art form that’s unique to China, originated during the Tang Dynasty (618-907.) Since then, Chinese artists have expressed their emotions with gradations of mostly monochromatic strokes in ink, with scarce touches of color to accentuate. The manifestation differs greatly from those of Western oil paintings, where abundant colors and textures are used to create depth and abstractness.

Huang Yue’s oil paintings of flowers and birds exists somewhere between the two. “My paintings are neither the traditional ink paintings of flowers and birds nor paintings of that under natural light in the West. It’s somewhere in between. It’s completely new, and innovation is the key for me.”

Paintings by Chinese oil painting artist Huang Yue.
 painting

More often than not, artists paint not just to capture the beauty of what they see, but use shapes and contours as metaphors to express their inner feelings and views of the world. So a flower, through an artist’s eyes, is not just a flower. It can be the symbol of femininity, peace, optimism and beauty. Every stroke an artists paints is an expression of culture. When the message that lies behind is too deeply embedded in cultural traditions, audiences from other parts of the world may have difficulties understanding it.

“When we export our art to the world, these metamorphic artistic conceptions are sometimes not understood,” Huang said. “Oil paintings are more easily accepted by the West. Some in the west are puzzled by the traditional Chinese flower and bird paintings. They don’t understand the complex message behind its visual simplicity. My works, however, with its rich usage of colors, are better taken and understood.”

Chinese oil painting artist Huang Yue (R) signs for a fan at Royal Asscher-Beijing Sparkle Roll Luxury Brands Culture Expo 2013 Fall in Beijing on Oct 10, 2013.
 painting

And they really are. Huang started fusing Chinese and Western styles of painting in 2000. As of today, nearly 20 of his pieces are a part of the Rockefellar family collection, a family known for their love of beautiful art. Steven C. Rockefeller Jr. and Kimberly K. Rockefeller both expressed their fondness for Huang’s work in the preface of his latest publication, Huang Yue Flower and Bird Oil Painting (4th).

“Steven Rockefeller said he has never seen anything like my works. This is also the opinion of many who have appreciated my works in the US and the UK.”

Silk scarves inspired by Chinese oil painting artist Huang Yue’s work displayed during Royal Asscher-Beijing Sparkle Roll Luxury Brands Culture Expo 2013 Fall in Beijing.
 painting

Huang, who participated in the Royal Asscher-Beijing Sparkle Roll Luxury Brands Fall Culture Expo 2013, is also tapping into the luxury market. He has already started making scarves inspired by his paintings. Soon, there will be ready-to-wear items, evening gowns and porcelain.

“Luxury to me means beautiful, unique and rare things. Most of them cannot be recreated. They may be expensive, but the price is not what defines luxury,” he said.

by Xiao Xiao xiaoxiao@interactchina.com

About Interact China

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“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide”

We co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 10 years solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we position well to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and bring you direct finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 2000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion, Tailor Shop, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.
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Tibetan Thangka Painting

The news that Chinese collector Liu Yiqian splashed around $45 million on a Thangka at a Christie’s sale in Hong Kong on Nov 26,2014 has overwhelmed social media. Then do you know what Thangka is and why it was sold at such a high price?

This imperial embroidered silk Thangka sold for 348 million HK dollars at Christie’s 2014 Hong Kong Autumn Auctions on Nov 26, 2014.
 Chinese Thangka

What is Thangka?

Thang in Tibetan means to display and ka means silk. Thangka is a kind of painting art– religious painting – that originated during the reign of Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo (AD 617-650) and prospered during the 18th and 19th centuries. A Thangka is a painting drawn on cotton or silk appliqué with vivid ethnic features and intense religious colors, which usually depicts the history, politics, culture and social life of the Tibetan people.

Thangka is often worshipped in temples, Buddha’s halls or even in Buddhist disciples’ homes in Tibet, which has been not only a pure handicraft, but more of a religious symbol.

It is mainly divided into two categories, painting Thangka and embroidered Thangka. The former one is directly painted on canvas using traditional pigments. The latter is embroidered on silk satin using precious mineral gems such as gold, silk, pearl, coral, agate, zinnober and plant pigments such as saffron crocus and indigo. Obviously, the latter one is of more artistic value, whose gorgeous colors can last for several centuries.

Photo taken on June 13 shows a Thangka painting on display during Tibet’s first selection of arts and crafts masters held in the Research Institute of Ethnic and Folk Arts in Lhasa from June 12 to 15, 2013.
 Chinese Thangka

How is it created?

The creation of a Thangka piece is like a journey of self-cultivation. Generally, the manufacturing process includes chanting sutras while preparing pigments, polishing canvas, grinding painting materials, sketching, designing, measuring, coloring, shading, delineating and the finishing touch.

The proportion of Buddha figures and the overall layout of the painting have to meet specific requirements, and the painter has to follow strict ritual procedures of Tibetan Buddhism in its creation.

The creation of a whole Thangka piece usually takes months or even years. During the long process, the artist, cherishing pious Buddhism beliefs, paints while chanting in accordance with the strict standards of composition, proportion and color inherited from ancestors. Therefore, Thangka is a kind of special art form which has irreplaceable artistic values.

Visitors take photos of Thangka during a Thangka art festival in Lhasa, Tibet autonomous region, Sept 25, 2014.
 Chinese Thangka
The Thangka on display in Maizhokunggar county in Lhasa on June 28, 2013 was recognized as the world’s largest Thangka.
 Chinese Thangka

The world’s largest Thangka:

An embroidered Thangka, 120 meters high and 85 meters wide, was on display in Maizhokunggar county in Lhasa on June 28, 2013. It had 19 painted Buddhas. The creation of the Thangka took 9 years and was recognized as the world’s largest Thangka, also the world’s largest handicraft.

The world’s most expensive Thangka:

The embroidered Thangka bought by Liu Yiqian for about $45 million is seen as the most expensive Thangka so far.

Thangka art by artist Niangben from Regong in Qinghai province. Photo provided to China Daily
 Chinese Thangka

The Thangka Liu bought was from the period during the reign of Emperor Yongle in the Ming Dynasty. It is the largest Tibetan embroidered Buddha Thangka from ancient times with a theme of driving out evil spirits. According to Christie’s, there are only three pieces of Yongle Thangkas existing and the other two are both in Jokhang Temple in Tibet.

by Xiao Xiao xiaoxiao@interactchina.com

About Interact China

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“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide”

We co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 10 years solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we position well to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and bring you direct finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 2000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion, Tailor Shop, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.
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