Multicultural China: A Brief History of China’s Population

By Tom Booth

In Europe most people think China is a country made up of only one ethnic identity. For many people the standard image of a Chinese person is someone with dark hair and small eyes that speaks Mandarin and writes in logograms.

A Chinese man showing off his patriotism. Image credit:  People take part in flash mob in Shanghai to celebrate 70th anniversary of P.R.C. founding / Xinhua

In reality, China is a country of great ethnic diversity. Out of China’s 1.4 billion total population there are more than 100 million people that are from ethnic minority groups. The largest of these ethnic minorities, the Zhuang, have a population of 18 million – that’s almost twice the size of the population of Greece!

A breakdown of the population of modern-day China. Created in https://www.meta-chart.com/pie

China is made up of 56 ethnic groups, each with a distinctive identity and culture. They have unique languages that are very different from Mandarin Chinese: the Miao Hmong people speak a language that derives from the Sino-Tibetan language family, while the Manchu people speak a Tungusic language that is similar to that spoken in Siberia.

The Miao Hmong people are distinguished by their elaborate silver headwear and beautiful embroidered clothes. Image credit: Xinhua News

They also have a range of religious beliefs: the Uyghur people are predominantly Muslim, while the Yi traditionally engage in shamanistic ancestor worship.

Uyghur people at daily prayer in a mosque. Photo credit: Euronews

This diversity is often celebrated as a key part of modern China’s identity.

A section of a poster in Beijing celebrating China’s 56 ethnic minority groups. Photo credit: Wikipedia

China’s multiculturalism can be best understood through two key points:

  1. China is an ancient country with a history stretching back many thousands of years. 
  2. China is extremely large, being almost the same size as the whole of Europe combined.

China has an extremely long and varied history. Over 3000 years ago China was divided into many different states. Many of these were grouped around the Yellow River due to it being excellent land for growing crops. Eventually groups began fighting over land, leading to the Warring States period 475-221 BC.

Map of China around 3000 years ago. Image credit: Minneapolis Institute of Art. http://archive.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/chinese-dynasty-map.cfm

The victory of the Qin in 221 BC saw China unified for the first time under Emperor Qin, the first emperor of China.

Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of a unified China. Image credit: Wikipedia

However, the China of the Qin was not the same as the China of today. In fact, it was much smaller, and was only around the east coast. Throughout China’s history, the size of the Chinese empire changed dramatically. The Tang dynasty spread far into the west, while the Song dynasty had shrunk into the south. The Ming saw rapid expansion into the north, and Qing China controlled the whole of Mongolia and large chunks of eastern Russia. Different territories contained different ethnic groups, but were all part of the Chinese empire.

The changing shape of China over history. Image credit: Minneapolis Institute of Art. http://archive.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/chinese-dynasty-map.cfm

China not only occupied different areas of land, but was also ruled by different ethnic groups. The Jin dynasty was established by Jurchens, the Yuan by Mongolians and the Qing by Manchu people.

Chinese men enjoying food together – notice the queue, the universal male hairstyle during the Qing dynasty. Image credit: Wikipedia

As such, ethnic minority influence is felt in all areas of modern Chinese life. Even in the Forbidden City, perhaps the most iconic monument in all of China, signs and notices are written in Manchu language, tying the place to its history under the Manchu rulers.

This sign in the Forbidden City is written both using Chinese logograms and Manchu language. Image credit: Kevin James WordPress https://kevinjames.wordpress.com/

China has also been closely connected to the outside world. The Silk Road ran all the way from Europe, along the east coast of Africa, through the Middle East and Asia Minor, around the south Asia subcontinent before entering China. As such, there was an almost constant flow not only of international goods such as spices, herbs and trinkets but also of people, knowledge, religion and language.

An image of trade on the Silk Road – camels, horses, elephants, chariots and more, reflecting the diversity of participation. Image credit: Ancient Origins https://www.ancient-origins.net/

As such, the idea of ‘China’ meant different things at different times in history. Because it is such an ancient and large country it is difficult to put a finger on a single ‘Chinese’ identity. One need only look at the huge variety of dialects, cuisine, dress and religious beliefs across Chinese history and the present day to recognise that China has always been, and continues to be, a place of huge ethnic diversity. In this light, perhaps ‘multicultural’ is the most accurate description of what it means to be ‘Chinese.’ 


About Interact China 

“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”  

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 13 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste. 

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts. 

P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!  
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you! 

People of Yunnan: A Little Great World with Many Faces

Written By Maria Giglio

Once upon a time in Southwest China, three brothers were born. As they grew up, it was clear that the boys were so different, that they also spoke different languages: Bai, Tibetan and Naxi.  Each brother then decided to settle in a different area between Tibet and Yunnan. This fascinating ancient legend about the birth of Southwestern Chinese culture is only a taster of the immense diversity characterising the region.

Did you know?

Probably you already know that China is known for having a high population density. Not everyone knows, however, that unlike many other huge Countries, such as the United States or Canada, Chinese territory is also very rich in cultural diversity. The whole land counts as many as 56 recognised minorities in China. Interestingly, almost half of them are concentrated within the Yunnan Province in Southwest China. Curious to know who they are? There are at least 25 communities inhabiting the Yunnan territory: Achang, Bai, Bulang, Buyi, Dai, De’ang, Dulong, Hani, Hui, Jingpo, Jinuo, Lahu, Lisu, Miao, Mongolian, Naxi, Nu, Pumi, Sani, Shui, Tibetan, Wa, Yao, Yi and Zhuang.

The following map shows the territory of Yunnan divided by ethnic groups.

Discover our partners and… friends!

Despite the alarming level of poverty spread across the territory, Yunnan people are renowned by locals and international tourists for their extreme hospitality, courtesy, natural cheerful spirit and vitality. Each different group has its own rich cultural heritage and proudly showcases it through colourful traditional attires, arts and crafts, which have remained the same generation by generation.

We at Interact China celebrate diversity and, naturally, oriental beauty. We believe that each community is unique, and we partner with many of them with the aim to share their secret beauties worldwide! At the core there is the wish that our initiatives contribute to their social and economic empowerment.

Discover some of our best friends from Yunnan Province!

Dai

Dai or (Thai) people live in the Southern area of the Yunnan. As the name suggests, they are strictly related to neighbour people of Thailand and Laos.

Dai communities count as many as 1,000,000 people. This means that there is a lot of diversity, including languages and costumes, within the same group, however the script is universal for all sub-groups, and also very different from the national Chinese.

Dai culture is full of vitality and fun: one of the most important celebration is the “Water Splashing Festival” on the occasion of Dai New Year. What is the main activity of the ongoing celebrations? Well, the name tells it itself…

Traditional attire for women include tight-sleeved short dresses to exalt feminine figure. Especially in Xishuangbanna region, there is a preponderance of bright colours, such as light green, pink and light blue. Here are some of our products from Dai people:

Hani

Hani people occupy a large portion of Southeast Yunnan. They have a long lasting tradition of artistic skills, especially textile art. In fact, Hani people believe that every person is unique, and like to express it through their attire, which is traditionally very characteristic.

Hani people give out their creativity through stitching and weaving imaginative patterns, zig zags, symbols, geometric shapes, that seem to suggest their language is hidden through their clothes. A taster of our collection of Hani bags:

Unlike many groups, Hani people love black and dark blue: they extract pigments from local Indigo plant. This doesn’t mean that they have mournful spirit: usually dark backgrounds come with lots of colourful decorations.

Lahu

The Lahu inhabit the Southern areas of the province. Still today, Lahu enjoy a very natural lifestyle. Animistic religion is still very diffused across the different sub-groups of this population.

A fun fact about Lahu people is their rich and beautiful mythology. Legend says that the founding father of their culture was a man who was fed and raised by charitable dogs when he was born.

Doesn’t it sound familiar? Because of this sort of Romulus-and-Remus kind of story, Lahu people cherish dogs as gods, showing their eternal gratefulness to their ancestral protectors. As a result, dogs are celebrated and tribute through arts and crafts. The abstract representation of the dog is the triangle. Watch below some of our authentic Lahu bags. Aren’t they a piece of art?

Lisu

Lisu people live in the North-western border of Yunnan close to Burma.  

These lively people also live in very natural environments and practice animistic religion. As a result, their art features a distinctively primitive character. A joy to the eyes of colour-lovers. Lisu love to show off their creativity wearing vibrant colours and bold accessories in their outfits.

A truly social community, Lisu use dresses and accessories for courting purposes. Fun fact: Lisu men craft and create extravagant bags, featuring tassels and colourful pompons to attract the ladies. The more, the merrier! For example, tassels in our Lisu bag below makes a long way to the top…

Miao

Miao Hmong people constitute the largest minority group in China, amounting to as many as 9,426,007 people occupying the Yunnan province. An originally nomadic people, large communities of Miao also inhabit neighbour regions of Vietnam, Laos and Thailand.

With over 5,000 years of history as a nomadic people, Miao features an incredible infra-group diversity. Each local group owns its own identity, though common features can be identified in overall Miao artistic skills and their original and rich costume. Miao people are in fact worldly renowned for their textiles and rich, heavy jewelry, that they proudly wear as expression of identity and history.

The making of their elaborate silver jewelry, like as iconic as impressive horn headdresses, not only reveals a high level of creativity but also an exceptional mastery of silversmithing art. I dare you find anything with a similar level of proficiency elsewhere in the world! We are proud to offer you a huge variety of products from these incredible artists. Since I didn’t know where to start, I only picked some! 🙂

Interestingly, silverware was originally used by Miao people as a way to easily carry their assets around when traveling, but also to showcase their wealth status. Originally jewellery was in fact crafted from melted coins, earned with hours of sacrifice. Today the Chinese government support the preservation of Miao traditional silversmithing, accredited as National Cultural Heritage in 2006, with special supplies of silver.

Tibetan

As the name suggest, Chinese Tibetan occupy the northern west of Yunnan, the closest to Tibet. Set in the cold and windy mountains of Tibetan plateau, these community live in harsh and isolated conditions, but they are nonetheless cheerful.

Appreciably influenced by Buddhist tradition, Tibetan people live in direct contact and homage nature with a respectful use of its gifts and resources.

Everything reflects this deep connection with the spiritual dimension of life. You may be impressed by the meaning attached to their beautiful jewels which beyond an undeniable aesthetic are also enriched with symbolism, being regarded as amulets. For example, the Dzi, a local patterned black and white gemstone, is considered to be capable of influencing the influx of energy of its wearer. Our Tibetan jewels keep it classic with turquoise and coral:

Yi

Finally, the Yi people inhabit the remote mountains of northern Yunnan, even though their largest representation lives in Sichuan Province.

A peaceful people sill living in contact with nature, Yi are known for their incredible embroidery skills, which are full part of their cultural heritage and daily attire.

Yi people like to express their wishes for a better and wealthier life through their clothes. That is why their attire is so colourful, despite the hard living conditions. Our Yi bags are a statement of joy. Don’t you love them?

We help these beautiful communities to thrive through their hard times. We believe that each owns an identity and cultural richness that deserves to be disclosed to the rest of the world. Every person is unique, every culture deserves a place in the world and in our hearts!

About Interact China 

圖案

“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”  

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 13 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste. 

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts. 

圖案

P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!  
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you! 

Full Moon Celebration and a Baby’s First Haircut

Written by Tom Booth

The World of Baby Haircuts

A baby’s first haircut is a significant event in many different cultures from around the world and is treated with great reverence. In Hinduism hair is considered as carrying undesirable traits from previous life, and is shaved during an odd month of the first or third year of the baby’s life. Muslim babies have their first haircut much earlier when they are only seven days old. It is regarded as an act of cleansing, preparing the baby for a life as a good Muslim. 

In China, cutting a baby’s hair for the first time is also considered an important event for many families. Historically, high infant mortality due to poor nutrition and low levels of sanitation meant the early months of a baby’s life were thought of as the most pivotal in determining whether he or she would live a long and healthy life. A baby’s first haircut is both a celebration of the birth and the survival of the baby during this fragile period.

A Chinese baby having his head shaved – looking trim!

The Party

A baby’s first haircut traditionally occurs at a ‘Full Moon Party.’ This celebration marks that a full month, or a ‘full moon’, has passed since the baby’s birth, and so the baby is now ready for his or her first trim. Some families celebrate in lavish style with lots of decorations, expensive food and entertainment aplenty, while others prefer to have a smaller, more intimate celebration where the baby receives the full focus of everyone’s attention.

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Tables laid out for a Full Moon Party – notice the usage of red objects?

Full Moon Parties are almost always dominated by the colour red. Red is traditionally used at family gatherings and holidays as it is thought to symbolise good fortune and happiness. It is thought that by surrounding the baby with red the family can guarantee a future life of good luck and joy. Eggs, representing new life, are dyed red and given to guests. Guests are also offered pickled ginger, which was traditionally fed to the new mother to help bring the body back into balance after childbirth. Gifts of lucky money placed inside red envelopes are commonly given to the family of the new baby.

Red Eggs and Ginger
A plate of dyed red eggs and pickled ginger – sure to guarantee health and happiness!

The Haircut

The baby, pride of place at the centre of the celebration, will also often wear a beautifully designed red babygrow. He or she will be introduced by the proud mother and father, who may also take this opportunity to introduce the child’s name for the first time. This is also an occasion where the mother is re-introduced to the family. Traditionally the first month after birth is a ‘sitting month’ where mothers spent one month in confinement, drinking medicinal soups and resting in order to regain strength following childbirth.

The hair of the baby then cut. This is traditionally done by a family member. The process is quick and painless but is evidently quite traumatic for some!

A pair of babies having their first haircut – not quite in the party mood!

A portion of the hair is then taken by the family and tied in a red ribbon to be kept as a keep safe. It is hoped that by trimming the child’s hair it will grow back thicker and darker than before, and will stay with the child until he is much older.

While this is the general process of the Full Moon Party, China is a very large country and so different customs exist in different areas. Some families always leave a tuft of hair on their baby’s head as it is thought to prevent the baby’s soul for escaping the body. Others take the hair and use it to make a special calligraphy brush. Others conclude the ceremony by having mother and baby bathe together with pomelo leaves to wash away evil spirits.

Ethnic and Ethical: 4 Reasons to Love Sustainable Fashion in China

Written By Maria Giglio

I remember the last time I walked around Regent’s Street area in London. It was last winter on a Saturday. Ok, it may not have been the last time, but surely it was the most memorable. I passed by a fur shop. A bunch of protestors stood in front of the building yelling at anyone getting out of the fancy door. Several bystanders just didn’t take them seriously or worse, they held their children tight, covering their eyes and ears, as they were assisting to a terrorist attack. It was a moment of dramedy.

Greta Thunberg on her first climate strike in front of the Swedish Parliament in Stockholm

Ok, we get it. In the era of veganism, environmentalism, climate change strikes, grumpy looks from Greta Thunberg to Donald Trump, not everyone is ready to give up their comfort food just yet, and for what? The promise of a better future?  Ain’t no hero, ain’t no saint, right? Wrong! Maybe this is a time desperately in need of a Marvel character, only this time is the whole world at stake. And by world, I mean trees, animals, insects, fish, your delicious bonsai, your Retriever, but also you and I, our children, the children of theirs. Only problem? The environmental alert is set up to 2030. In a world without fictional saviours, only humanity can save itself from self-destruction. Good news: we are still in time to make this happen. How? Coming to compromise on our old habits: energy and food waste, water efficiency, responsible consumption. In a nutshell, sustainability. And compared to the payoff, this is really a small effort. The growing concern about sustainability issues finally has led many industries to look at sustainability as a crucial bullet point in their performance checklist and it is increasingly becoming a key determinant in their revenues.

A relatively young capitalist economic superpower, a fast-forward technological hub, Chinese market offers a fertile place for sustainable businesses to grow.  As an important branch of mass consumption, Fashion is one of the most prosperous industries, supported and fostered by a workforce of young western-educated home-comers redressing their homeland reputation with sustainable initiatives.

What is sustainable fashion?

The very first important question to ask is, what we mean by sustainable fashion? The answer is, one that is environmental-friendly, but also people-friendly. Let’s see the reasons why supporting it in details

1.      It’s good for the planet.

As pointed out above, sustainability is intuitively relates to environmental issues. In what ways fashion can be sustainable under this aspect? First of all, generally ethical brands offer handmade products, usually unique pieces. Taking mass-production off the table implies to avoid frenetic production which exhausts resources rapidly, but also to avoid industrial processing which implies high level of energy emission, chemical material usage, water consumption, toxic waste.

Moreover, sustainable clothing is made of natural, organic and recycled materials. This contributes to reduce the environmental footprint not only because “what comes from nature returns to nature” but also because it reduces waste production. In fact, generally organic fabric ensures a better quality of clothing, which usually lasts longer than synthetic fibres. This discourages you from disposing of a shirt right after few months of usage.

2.      It’s good for yourself.

I’ve just pointed out that a very important feature of sustainable fashion is that is made of organic fabric. This is also good for your health. As a customer, you don’t want to risk to wake up covered in rash because of the wrong pyjama. Usually organic fabrics have a very low level of toxicity if not free of carcinogens.

Moreover, let’s not forget that handmade production grants you top quality and awesome unique pieces, at fairly reasonable prices. Don’t you want to feel special and unique too?

3.      It’s good for other people.

Environment and health are the most obvious reasons why going sustainable. But beyond the mainstream subject target, we should think of sustainability more as a holistic concept, that refers to all the dimensions of our living together. It’s a call to share the global limited space and resources equally, responsibly and kindly, paying the same consideration for others’ wellbeing as the consideration we expect them to pay for us. If you look at the official plan for sustainability set up by the UN, the Sustainable Development Goals  (in short 2030 SDGs) amount to 17 global goals in total including social goals in the global political agenda.

To mention some, gender equality, education, peace, justice, decent work, innovation. So, beyond the eco-friendly purpose, sustainable fashion also aims at achieving social equality. How? By taking care of the wellbeing women and men behind each product. For example, the use of organic materials reduces the risk of contact and inhaling toxic substances, thus safeguarding the worker’s health. Moreover, sustainable brands endorse a policy of fairness. Retailers in this slice of market are usually committed to promote the ethnic products of the most marginalised communities in the world to support their independent development. How? By granting fair pay and treating them as equal partners and avoiding engaging in abusive practices. Last but not least, by promoting their cultural heritage, often at risk of disappearance due to the mass-globalisation.

4.      Ultimately, it’s good for your soul.

Yes, it is. Don’t you feel already empowered by knowing that so much good can come from one simple gesture? You are one bag away from changing a life, for real.

Chinese Brands Committed to Ethical Fashion

And if you’re curious to know who is striving for social change in Chinese fashion district, here are some examples:

Nuomi – A high-end fashion line, Nuomi empowers women with its handmade line, all using natural fibres such as bamboo, cotton, silk, and an admirable working ethics, creating employment opportunities in disadvantaged contexts.

An amazing Nuomi dress 100% Natural

Fake Natoo – is a true blessing for the environment, using exclusively recycled and donated materials. The fashion brand is also committed to create working opportunities for migrant women creatives by giving 10% of its annual revenue to their cooperatives.

A piece of Natoo’s Recycling Bank collection

NEEMIC – this high end fashion brand uses 100% organic materials, from fabric to cleansing products such as biodegradable soaps to avoid chemical waste.

Neemic past SS collection

Interact China: Do good, look good, feel good!

If you are looking for something which is good for the planet, the environment, the others, and yourself, but also culturally tripping, please visit us on our website! We raise social awareness by promoting the products of different ethnic artisans of China. Our hope is to disclose to the world the immense cultural heritage of Chinese and Southeast Asian communities, their diversity.

Miao generations of lady crafters

Our mission is to raise the human lives of these populations by creating the opportunity to sell their products on a global market.

Our co-founders Aileen and Norman on a trip to a Miao Village, Yunnan 2005

Each item is a little treasure telling the story of this people’s long journey. Do you want to hear it? The way we see it: do good, look good, feel good! The way you can make it happen? By a simple click. To know more, come visit us on www.InteractChina.com !


About Interact China 

“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”  

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 13 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste. 

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts. 

圖案

P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!  
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you! 

Tibetan Music – About Religion, Besides Religion

By Sari Xu

To be honest, as an outsider, I found it hard to distinguish Yi music from traditional music of Dai people. The closer these ethnic groups are geographically, the more similarities we could see among their music. However, Tibetan music is much more distinctive and you can easily recognize it after you read about the following introductions.

About Religious Music                                                                                                   

The main religion of Tibetan people is Lamaism (The Mahayana branch of Buddhism). Therefore, their music is mostly Buddhist music. Other than the traditional chanting music, Tibetan people also created their own musical notation – Yāng Yí Musical Notation (央移谱) back in 14th century. It consists both straight lines and curves, while the 7 straight lines have the same function as the modern Western musical score, the curves replace the notes and indicate the entire flow of the melody. Therefore, there is no publicly accepted standard for these notes. The only way to read the notation is to learn from senior lama (monks), follow their chant, keep practicing daily for lifetime, and truly understand the meanings behind.

Just like the Pilgrimage to Santiago, the road to Potala Palace, Lhasa is another famous route among pilgrims. The religious music is one of the main sources that mentally supports the lama and pilgrims to finish their pilgrimage with a worship on the ground every three steps starting from their hometown until Potala.

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A Yang Yi Musical Notation Sample

 

 

 

 

Besides Religious Music

Other than their religious life, Tibetan people also sing and dance a lot in their daily life. The concepts are mostly about the nature, the family reunion, and best wishes to everything. Some popular types of folk songs including Sgor-Gzhas(果谐), Reba-Gzhas(热巴谐) and Mamani(嘛玛尼), etc. Sgor-Gzhas is the most popular way of singing while dancing in a circle simultaneously. Reba-Gzhas represents various types of dance music to accompany with knife dance, deer dance, musical dramas and so on. The Mamani artists usually hang on a religious painting in front of the audience and tell the religious story through their songs.

Modern Artists and Singers

The music talents of Tibetan people are also widely recognized by audience around China. Tseitain Zhoima, as one of the best sopranos in China, was deeply influenced by Tibetan folk music since childhood. Her iconic works including Liberated Tibetan Serfs Singing the Emancipation, Over the Gold Hill in Beijing, The East is Red, etc. Yangchen Zhoima, probably more known as Han Hong (韩红), is a mixed Tibetan-Han singer and songwriter. Heavenly Road is her prestigious masterpiece.

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Tseitain Zhoima Performing in Tibetan Clothing

Why Tibetan?

Tibetan people are born to be great singers. Why?

Around 8000 years ago, Qiāng Tribe, the ancestor of Tibetan people, settled in the Tibet Plateau and started grazing. To communicate on the endless plain, it’s necessary to have great voice when herding animals. In addition, the atmosphere pressure is much lower at high altitude like Tibet, the trachea, bronchus and lungs of Tibetan people gradually evolved and developed to tackle with the thin air. This helps Tibetan people to reach really high pitches and also spread their voice far away.

Nowadays, more and more musicians fall in love with Tibetan music and started to add Tibetan elements into their own music. No matter what types of music they are doing, they could always find the Tibetan music mixing well with the pop music favored by the majority. Therefore, the Tibetan music now is no longer about religion only, it goes beyond Lamaism, and even beyond the border to the international stage. Check out this performance to see how young Tibetan singers are promoting their own music in a modern way.

 

 

About Interact China


“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 15 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.


P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you!

Dai Music – Mountain Songs, Zanha and Much More

By Sari Xu

Pavane, or more known as Peacock dance in China, is the representative dance of Dai ethnic minority group (傣族). The dance is usually accompanied with traditional Dai music such as The Spirit of Peacock, Moonlight and so on. Since the top Chinese dancer Liping Yang (杨丽萍) performed this dance on several international stages, people might think this is the most prestigious and only dance for Dai nation. However, the true Dai music and dance are much more colorful than we can imagine.

Mountain Songs

Just like other ethnic groups living in the mountain area, Dai people living on the mountains also have their unique mountain songs (山歌), which is a kind of folk songs people love to sing in the mountain when they are climbing, doing farming and playing around. If you have been travelling to the mountains, you can tell the echoes made by the nature are best harmony for the singers. Though solo is the most common form of mountain songs, young couples also created tons of antiphonal songs (对歌), or “Call and Response” to express their love to each other, laud the nature and their hometown in turn.

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Typical Mountains in Yunnan Province

The mountain songs are generally divided into two categories – Han Ma (喊嘛) and Han Tong Mao (喊同卯). In Chinese, they both literally mean “shouting out”. The difference is Han Ma is more lyrical and the latter is more cheerful with more straightforward melody.

If necessary, Ding Qin (玎琴) is used to accompany with the love song. It is a traditional plucked string musical instrument like Pipa (琵琶) used exclusively within the Dai ethnic group. People usually call it “instrument of love”.

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Ding Qin (玎琴)

I believe, the best mountains songs are all improvisations. Once Dai people got inspiration from the environment and folks around them, artworks just come out by the light of nature.

Chinese Rap – Zanha’s Talking and Singing

Zanha (赞哈) in Dai dialect refers to the semi-professional artists who perform at special occasions in Sipsongpanna (西双版纳) such as holidays and festivals, building up new houses, marriage and new-born celebration, Buddha events and so on. In Menglian County (孟连), they are called Wogan (窝甘). Therefore, their tones are specially named as “Zanha Melody” (赞哈调) or “Wogan Melody” (窝甘调). Usually, there is one singer and one accompanist collaborating together to make the polyphony. Combining the singing and talking together, people like the way of “Shuochang” (说唱) since hundreds of years ago. Does this remind you of the modern rap music? Well, you’ll find the beats to be very distinctive!

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Folk Artists Performing Zanha Melody

 

Dance Music

Other than the most famous peacock dancing, Dai people also owns lots of dances imitating fishes, elephants, and red deer, etc. Therefore, there are dance music called Peacock Songs, Drum Melody, Twelve Horses Melody, Yilahui, Hanzha and so on. These songs are mostly accompanied by the “elephant foot drum” (象脚鼓), a traditional Dai drum look like the elephant’s foot. Interestingly, Dai people love to place a layer of glutinous rice in the middle of the drum surface to make the sounds deeper.

 

Musical Instruments

Hulusi and Bawu are both widely used within Dai group either as solo instruments or accompany with the dance and songs. Hulusi is especially popular since it’s derived from the Dai group. There is a Hulusi masterpiece called There is a Beautiful Place. I hope by checking out this Hulusi performance together with the Yunnan view in the video, you can find this beautiful place!

 

About Interact China


“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 15 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.


P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you!

Yi People – Their Music and Life

By Sari Xu

Ethnic minority people are better at singing and dancing than the Han people in general. One possible reason I guess is that the minority people live very close to the nature even till today, so they get lots of inspirations and ideas from the mountains, the rivers, and the forests, and also get the places for them to sing and dance.

Yi ethnic minority group is typically keen on singing and dancing, with its unique melodies and musical instruments locating at the South-West of China. Everyone from Yi could as least sing one traditional melody or Shan’ge (山歌, Chinese folk songs, lit. mountain songs), with ladies and gentlemen having quite different parts. While Yi guys usually have a deep voice, women are known for their soft, yet crisp voice with a really broad range. Basically, they sing all the time through their daily life, that’s when they created the mountain climbing melody (爬山调, Yi people mostly live in the mountain), visiting melody (进门调), welcoming melody (迎客调), drinking melody (吃酒调), marrying melody (娶亲调),  just to name a few.

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These melodies above are just some rhythm to follow. People write lyrics usually with 5 or 7 words, and 1, 2 or 4 sentences in sequence to create songs when they are doing farming and other labor work, singing lullaby to babies, and celebrating festivals. Therefore, just like most of traditional Chinese folk songs, we don’t know the author of these songs and there were no music scores to keep the record. Actually, there’s no need to do so. People sing their favorite songs all year round and generation by generation, and those most popular ones are automatically passed on till today when modern composers find them. Generally, composers would follow the traditional Chinese 5-tone model (五声调式) with 5 solfège – do, re, mi, sol, la.

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The best scene to enjoying Yi people’s favorite songs would of course be – dancing. Since there are so many types of dances, people even specifically divide them into “music dance” (乐舞) and “song dance” (歌舞) within their group. While music dance is usually dance accompanied with Yi music instruments, song dance is the dance that most suitable to dance when singing. Some famous dances include: Da Ge (打歌), Die Jiao (跌脚), Luo Zuo (罗作), San Bu Xian (三步弦), Pi Zhan Wu (披毡舞), etc.

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Pi Zhan Wu (披毡舞)

Da Ge and Die Jiao are similar to tap dance with fancy leg movement. Luo Zuo could be simply described as Da Ge plus hand gestures while all these 3 are circle dances. San Bu Xian is a music dance accompanied with 3 different chords played by bamboo flutes and Pi Zhan Wu (Zhan means felt in Chinese) requires the dancer to wear a felt and imitate the gestures of the eagle or bear.

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The best time of the year for Yi people to sing and dance as much as they want, would be their Torch Festival on June 24th (on Lunar Calendar) shared with some other ethnic groups like Lahu people (拉祜族), Naxi people (纳西族) and Bai people (白族). Except bullfighting, cockfighting, wrestling and horse racing which mostly participated by men, everyone, even kids and the elderly would form a circle and dance together with music and singing.

Other than the local melodies, Yi musical instruments are also something you can’t find elsewhere previously. Mabu (马布), Bawu (巴乌), Kouxian (口弦) and Hulu Sheng (葫芦笙) are some examples that later being applied by modern musicians around China. The famous some adapted from one Yi folk song is Please Stay, Guests from Faraway (远方的客人请你留下来). Now we can tell how welcoming the Yi people are and how music equate to their life!

Check out this video made by a travelling photographer who visited Shilin Yunnan (云南石林) for the Torch Festival! I promise you can feel the fire everywhere!

 

About Interact China


“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 15 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.


P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!

If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you!

Modern Chinese Orchestras – Some Famous Chinese Bands and Their Magnum Opuses

By Sari Xu

The word “Orchestra”, or more specifically, symphony orchestra or philharmonic orchestra, must remind you of the sparkly and glowed Western classic musical instruments – fiddles, cellos, violas, clarinets, oboes, flutes, trumpet, tubas, etc. dating back to the European Renaissance period (around 14th – 17th centuries). Shining, classic, elegant, and traditional. Actually, the orchestra doesn’t only exist in Western countries, in China and various overseas Chinese communities, there are also several forms of modern orchestras that contains mostly Chinese traditional musical instruments.

The modern Chinese orchestra was first developed out of Jiangnan Sī Zhú ensemble (江南丝竹, silk and bamboo instruments based ensembles formed in regions south of the Yangtze River) in the 1920s into a form that is based on the structure and principles of a Western symphony orchestra but using Chinese instruments. The orchestra is divided into four sections – wind, plucked strings, bow strings, and percussion, and usually performs modernized traditional music called Guó Yuè (国乐, lit. national music). You might hear other titles more often like Mín Zú Yuetuan (民族乐团) or Mín Zú Yuè Duì (民族乐队) in mainland China, Zhōng Yuè Tuān (中乐团) in Hong Kong, Huá Yuè Tuán (华乐团) in South East Asia, or Guó Yuè Tuán (国乐团) in Taiwan. The “Yuè Tuán” means orchestra, and sorry for having so many characters all referring to “China”, don’t be confused, all these names share the same meaning!

The origin of modern Chinese orchestra dates back to early 20th century, when a number of Chinese musicians became interested in improving traditional Chinese music. A notable early pioneer was Zheng Jinwen (郑觐文, 1872-1935) who founded a music institution in Shanghai in 1921, the Great Unity Music Society (大同乐会), to develop and maintain Chinese music in the modern age, recreating ancient music and instruments as well as creating new ensemble music for Chinese instruments. Zheng experimented with increasing the number of player in a Jiangnan Sī Zhú ensemble to 35, and separated the instruments into different sections. He began to standardize the instruments, for example inventing methods to resolve the problem of traditional instruments such as Dizi (笛子) where the fundamental tuning for various instruments may be different. He also updated traditional instruments such as the sheng by increasing the number of pipes to increase its range and allow it to play harmony and chords. In the past, each player may embellish their parts at will, but in this new orchestra, Zheng wrote specific music for each instruments or sections like what Western orchestra composers do. One early signature tune of the music club was Spring Flowers on Moonlit River (春江花月夜), arranged for the ensemble by Liu Raozhang in 1925 based on an older tune for pipa which we discussed before.

With the efforts of the united group of musicians, artists, composers and performers, modern Chinese orchestras rose significantly during the past century and there existed some famous and notable orchestras that even went international: China Broadcasting Chinese Orchestra, founded in 1953, is a major Chinese orchestra based in Beijing. A compilation of the orchestra’s music entitled Phases of the Moon: Traditional Chinese Music, produced by the China Record Company and released by CBS in 1981, was one of the first and best-known recordings of Chinese music in the West.

Shanghai Chinese Orchestra was the first large-scale modern orchestra of traditional instruments in China founded in 1952. It performed in more than 80 cities in China, as well as in more than 30 foreign countries. In 2001 and 2003 it performed two Chinese New Year concerts at the Musikverein in Vienna. It achieved a number of world records as recorded by Guinness Book of Records. In 2001, Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra recorded the largest number of people performing the erhu at the same time with a thousand players performing at a mass performance entitled Music from a Thousand Strings.

You may wonder, so China doesn’t have orchestras, or bands before 1920s?

Of course not! Ancient Chinese orchestras existed since the Shang Dynasty (1600 – 1046 B.C) and was used at royal court and later during Confucian ceremonies. Click here to see what instruments the ancestors play back at that time!

About Interact China


“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 15 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.


P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you!

Chinese Music 101: Gourd Musical Instruments – The Sheng Family

By Sari Xu

Gourds, not only the fruits of some flower plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, but also form its own family in Chinese traditional musical instruments – one of the 8 tones as “gourd tone” (匏). This tone includes Hulusi – which we are now very familiar with, Sheng, Yu, and He, etc. You may wonder are they just made from different shapes of gourds. Of course not! There are more interesting stories behind!

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Sheng (笙), similar to Hulusi, is a mouth-blown free-reed instrument consisting of multiple pipes. It’s a polyphonic instrument and is enjoying an increasing popularity worldwide recently especially as a solo instrument, while in the modern large Chinese orchestra, it’s usually used for both melody and accompaniment. Speaking of the history of Sheng, it’s one of the oldest instruments in China, with images depicting its kind date back to 1100 B.C. –  its “family members” He and Yu were first mentioned in bone oracle writings dating from 14th to 12th century B.C, while the first appearance of the word “Sheng” existed in some of the poems of Shijing (《诗经》, Book of Odes), dating back 7th century B.C. Traditionally, it has been used as an accompaniment instrument for solo Suona (we’ll discuss later!) and dizi (link previous article here) performances.

Check out the ensemble of a Sheng and a Suona here!

Just like Bangzi and some percussion instruments we’ve discussed, Sheng is also one of the main instruments in Kunqu (Kun opera, 昆曲) and other various forms of Chinese opera. Furthermore, it’s widely played in traditional small wind and percussion ensembles in Northern China.

 

Unlike single reeds or double reeds, which vibrate at the pitch according to the length of the attached air column, Sheng’s reeds vibrate at a fixed frequency. Covering the holes on a traditional sheng’s pipes would cause the entire length of the pipes to resonate with the reeds’ frequency. If the hole is open, the resonant frequency would not match, and hence no sound is produced – that’s why it has multiple pipes! Interestingly, the player could make a sound by EITHER exhaling or inhaling into the mouthpiece, sounds like a melodica, right? One more tricky skill is that players can produce a relatively continuous sound without pause by quickly switching between the two – much like bow changes for stringed instruments!

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A small ensemble of different sizes of Shengs

Nowadays, musicians classify Shengs into various types including traditional sheng, and keyed sheng (also known as “improved sheng” (改良笙) developed after 1950s. Within the keyed sheng category, there are soprano, alto, tenor, and bass sheng divided based on their ranges, and keyboard sheng in addition. Keyboard sheng, sometimes referred as Pai Sheng (排笙, a row of sheng, like the Pai Xiao, which means a row of Xiao), has a keyboard layout instead of the typical buttons. Pai Shengs have reeds from 37 all the way to 53, which cover the variety ranges from Alto to Bass.

Just as we mentioned at the beginning, instead of Sheng, Yu (竽) and He actually existed first in bone oracle writings and are also classified as gourd musical instruments. Yu, compared to Sheng, is played in single lines melodically rather than providing simultaneous tones in harmony, and generally larger in terms of the size. It was used, often in large numbers, in ancient China’s court orchestras. He (和), in contrast, is generally smaller than Sheng.

 

Last but not least, what if combining Sheng and Hulusi together? Then, it comes the Hulusheng (葫芦笙). It’s also a free-reed organ just like Sheng, but with a windchest made from a dried bottle gourd like Hulusi! And you may have already guessed – same as Hulusi, it’s very popular in Southern China, mostly in Yunnan Province, played by the ethnic groups there!

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A Modern Hulusi (Cr. Interact China)

About Interact China


“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 15 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.


P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you!

Chinese Music 101: Metal Musical Instruments – Another Big Percussion Family

By Sari Xu

A quick review! We’ve discussed that among the 8 tones of Chinese Musical Instruments, stone, skin and wood categories mostly contain percussion instruments like the Chinese drum family, ancient Bianqing and the Muyu used in the temple, etc. Other than that, under the category of metal tone, there’s also a group of percussion instruments!

 

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Bo (钹), sometimes also called Chazi (镲子), is a type of cymbals. It falls into the category of concussion idiophone, or struck idiophone, which consists of two plates that are clashed together. It was originated from Western Asia and was introduced to ancient China during around 350 B.C along with the ancient Tintu music. Similarly, just like the wood instrument Bangzi (梆子) and Muyu, Bo was also first used in Fanyue (Buddhist music, 梵乐) and now widely played not only in traditional Chinese music performances and traditional operas, but also in various folk music and dance performances. Since Ming (1368 – 1644) and Qing (1644 – 1912) Dynasty, it’s typically used to accompany with Qun Opera (昆曲) and other regional operas.

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There are several different types of Bo, mainly being categorized based on the size of the cymbals: Xiaobo (小钹) means small cymbals; Zhongbo (中钹) means medium cymbals; Dabo (大钹) means large cymbals; Shuibo (水钹) literally means “water cymbals”, it has a thinner plates and makes a softer sound more like water; Jingbo (京钹) is the cymbals used in Beijing Opera; Shenbo (深钹) is also called Gaobian Daluo (高边大锣), which is a deep, flat Gong used in Chaozhou (潮州, a city in Southern China) music. Now, you may wonder – what is the Gong in China?

Gong, a type of percussion instrument used worldwide, has a Chinese division called Luo (). For those who are not familiar with gong, it is an East and Southeast Asian percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat, circular metal disc which is hit with a mallet. It also found its way into the Western world in the 18th century when it was used in the percussion section of a Western-style symphony orchestra. It is mostly made of bronze and was first used by the ethnic minority groups from west-southern China. Because it has a deep tone and long lingering sound, it’s widely applied in many fields as an accompaniment instrument and just like Bo and Bangzi, is quite popular among the traditional operas such as Beijing Opera, Bangzi Opera, Flower Drum Opera, and many other folk operas.

Luo could also be divided into several categories: Daluo, Chaoluo, Xiaoluo, Zhangluo, and Yunluo. Daluo(大锣) and Xiaoluo (小锣), are representing the large gong and small gong, respectively. Chaoluo (超锣/山锣, mountain luo) is one of the most unique kinds with the longest and widest usage in the history. It has a black frame and center, with a copper body. It’s also a great gift option among the bands and orchestras.

Yunluo, literally cloud luo, or sometimes called nine-tone luo, is the only kind of luo that could be used to play the melody. It’s a set of Xiaoluo organized together on a wooden stand and is widely employed in traditional Chinese orchestra.

Luo, and Bo – though this two percussion families largely compose the big metal tone family, there are also other metal percussions such as Pengling, Dangzi, and Yunzheng, etc.

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Last but not least, let’s check out the percussion ensemble performance of the famous opus called The Quarreling Ducks which Shuiluo is the main performing instrument here, and guess “what does the duck say”?!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzHCzAKLgAM

 

About Interact China


“A Social Enterprise in E-commerce Promoting Oriental Aesthetic Worldwide!”

Aileen & Norman co-founded Interact China in 2004 with specialization in fine Oriental Aesthetic products handmade by ethnic minorities & Han Chinese. Having direct partnerships with artisans, designers, craft masters and tailors, along with 15 years of solid experience in e-commerce via InteractChina.com, we are well positioned to bridge talented artisans in the East with the rest of the world, and directly bring you finely selected products that are of good quality and aesthetic taste.

So far we carry 3000+ goods covering Ladies Fashion via ChineseFashionStyle.com, Kungfu Fashion, Home Furnishings, Babies & Kids, Painting Arts, Textile Arts, Carving Arts, Tribal Jewelry Art, Wall Masks and Musical Instruments. Our team speak English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, and serve customers worldwide with passion and hearts.


P.S. We Need People with Similar Passion to Join Our Blogging Team!
If you have passion to write about Oriental Aesthetic in Fashion, Home Decor, Art & Crafts, Culture, Music, Books, and Charity, please contact us at bloggers@interactchina.com, we would love to hear from you!